Patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) experience urinary incontinence with or without difficult urination, which might promote recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and exacerbate upper urinary tract function. Nonetheless, appropriate bladder management has been shown to reduce urological complications and improve quality of life. In addition to pharmacological therapy and surgical intervention, botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) has been widely utilized in NLUTD. The therapeutic efficacy of detrusor BoNT-A injections for neurogenic detrusor overactivity due to spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis, or other central nervous system lesions, such as cerebrovascular accident, Parkinson disease, early dementia, and pediatric NLUTD due to myelomeningocele, has been well established, with repeated BoNT-A injections every 6 to 9 months being necessary to maintain its therapeutic effects. Urethral BoNT-A injection can decrease urethral sphincter resistance and facilitate efficient voiding in patients with NLUTD who wish to preserve self-voiding. Detrusor BoNT-A injection can also decrease the occurrence of autonomic dysreflexia in patients with SCI, even after failed augmentation enterocystoplasty, with additional benefits including reduced UTI episodes and preserved renal function with repeated injections. However, this treatment does have some side effects. Complete informed consent for BoNT-A injection therapy with full disclosure of its potential complications should therefore be obtained before this procedure is undertaken.
International neurourology journal. 2020 Dec 31 [Epub]
Yuan-Hong Jiang, Sheng-Fu Chen, Hann-Chorng Kuo
Department of Urology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.