Urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients with neurogenic bladder are a major public health issue due to their high incidence and major consequences. Despite their frequency and potential severity, their physiopathology and management are poorly known. We provide a narrative literature review on the epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic criteria, microbiology, antimicrobial management, and prevention. UTIs among patients with neurogenic bladder are associated with high morbidity and healthcare utilization. Risk factors for UTI among this population are: indwelling catheter, urinary stasis, high bladder pressure, and bladder stones. Their diagnosis is a major challenge as clinical signs are often non-specific and rare. A urinary sample should be analyzed in appropriate conditions before any antibiotic prescription. According to most guidelines, a bacterial threshold≥103CFU/ml associated with symptoms is acceptable to define UTI in patients with neurogenic bladder. The management of acute symptomatic UTI is not evidence-based. A management with a single agent and a short antibiotic treatment of 10 days or less seems effective. Antibiotic selection should be based on the patient's resistance patterns. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated to avoid the emergence of bacterial resistance. Regarding preventive measures, use of clean intermittent catheterization, intravesical botulinum toxin injection, and prevention using antibiotic cycling are effective. Bacterial interference is promising but randomized controlled trials are needed. Large ongoing cohorts and randomized controlled trials should soon provide more evidence-based data.

Medecine et maladies infectieuses. 2019 Mar 15 [Epub ahead of print]

A Dinh, B Davido, C Duran, F Bouchand, J-L Gaillard, A Even, P Denys, E Chartier-Kastler, L Bernard

Service des maladies infectieuses et tropicales, hôpital R. Poincaré, hôpitaux universitaires Paris Île de France Ouest (HU-PIFO), AP-HP, UVSQ, 104, boulevard R.-Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France. Electronic address: ., Service des maladies infectieuses et tropicales, hôpital R. Poincaré, hôpitaux universitaires Paris Île de France Ouest (HU-PIFO), AP-HP, UVSQ, 104, boulevard R.-Poincaré, 92380 Garches, France., Pharmacie, hôpital R.-Poincaré, hôpitaux universitaires Paris Île de France Ouest, AP-HP, UVSQ, 92380 Garches, France., Laboratoire de microbiologie, hôpital R.-Poincaré, hôpitaux universitaires Paris Île de France Ouest, AP-HP, UVSQ, 92380 Garches, France., Service de neuro-urologie, hôpital R.-Poincaré, hôpitaux universitaires Paris Île de France Ouest, AP-HP, UVSQ, 92380 Garches, France., Service d'urologie, hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière, AP-HP, université Paris VI, 75013 Paris, France., Département des maladies infectieuses et tropicales, hôpital Bretonneau, université F.-Rabelais, 37000 Tours, France.

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