This review is based on the author's Donald Munro Lecture given at the annual conference of the Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals in New Orleans, LA. Indwelling catheters play an important role in bladder management following SCI for many individuals with neurogenic bladders. There is an increased risk of UTI compared to other types of bladder management with indwelling urethral catheters but not SP catheters. To minimize the risk of symptomatic UTI, the following steps are essential: prevent bladder wall distention and resulting ischemia, maintain colonization with "good" bacteria, and prevent bladder stones. For individuals with recurrent symptomatic UTIs, try to change the environment, prevent bladder over distention, and make sure the bladder is "quiet" by using strategies such as adequate dosages of anticholinergics, onabotulinum toxin A, and preventing catheter blockage. Bacterial colonization of the bladder is common. However, bacterial colonization may have a positive effect by inhibition of colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Judicious use of antibiotics is important since antibiotics hasten the evolution of more resistant organisms. Potential prevention and treatment strategies include killing the offending organisms, changing the environment (such as urinary acidification), and modifying virulence factors and the bacterial microbiome.
The journal of spinal cord medicine. 2018 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print]
Todd A Linsenmeyer
a Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, West Orange, New Jersey; Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey; Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation , Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School , Newark , New Jersey.