Diagnosis of trichomoniasis in men by urine cytology

Trichomonas vaginalis is a rare finding in urine cytology specimens, especially those from men; only 2 case reports have been described in the literature. The authors of the current report sought to determine the incidence and clinical significance of this finding in urine cytology in males.

The authors' cytopathology archives were queried for urine cytology specimens that contained Trichomonas over a 30-year period. Clinical information from men with Trichomonas-positive urines was reviewed retrospectively. Slides were reviewed, and the morphologic characteristics of the organisms were recorded.

Trichomonas was detected in 73 of 60,000 urine cytology specimens (0.1%). The patients included 45 women and 28 men. Men with Trichomonas in their urine ranged in age from 28 to 87 years (mean age, 67 years; median, 71 years). Trichomonas organisms were round to oval, with eccentric nuclei and cytoplasmic granules. Acute inflammation was observed in 6 of 7 cases. Clinical history was available in 13 of 28 men. Lower urinary tract symptoms were reported in 10 of 13 men, most commonly hematuria; and urethral strictures were identified by cystoscopy in 3 of 13 men. Clinical follow-up was available for 10 of 13 patients; of these, 8 (80%) had received treatment with metronidazole based on urine cytology results.

This study is the largest series of Trichomonas infection in men diagnosed by urine cytology in the literature. Most men had no prior diagnosis of trichomoniasis and received specific antibiotic therapy based on their urine cytology results. Urine cytology may represent the initial diagnostic test for Trichomonas in men, and accurate cytologic diagnosis may prevent undesired adverse outcomes for them and their partners. Cancer Cytopathol 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Cancer cytopathology. 2016 Sep 16 [Epub ahead of print]

Erika E Doxtader, Tarik M Elsheikh

Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. ., Department of Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

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