Practical approach to screen vesicoureteral reflux after a first urinary tract infection - Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common pediatric urologic disorder.

After the first urinary tract infection (UTI), imaging studies are recommended, starting with a renal ultrasound (RUS). Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan are the other main radiologic studies used to detect VUR. We evaluated the use of RUS as a screening method for VUR in children below 2 years of age, in order to avoid unnecessary VCUG.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records and imaging studies of infants (< 2 years) who had their first UTI in a 6 year period were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of RUS and DMSA for diagnosing VUR.

RESULTS: Among 155 children (51% males) with their first UTI, 148 RUS were performed, 128 VCUG and 29 DMSA. VUR was detected in 21% patients; 14.5% low grade and 6.5% high grade. One hundred and twenty-one patients underwent both RUS and VCUG, 101 RUS were normal and 20 abnormal. Of the normal RUS 98% had no or low grade VUR. Among those with an abnormality on RUS 30% had high grade VUR (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: After the first UTI in infants (< 2 years) RUS is a good screening method for VUR. Among such shildren with a normal RUS, we do not recommend VCUG or DMSA. In our opinion, VCUG should be performed only in patients with abnormal findings in RUS or in recurrent UTI.

Written by:
Fuente MÁ, Costa TS, García BS, Serrano MA, Alonso MS, Luján EA.   Are you the author?
Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Reference: Indian J Urol. 2014 Oct;30(4):383-6.
doi: 10.4103/0970-1591.142055

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 25378818 Infections Section