Impact analysis of an evidence-based guideline on diagnosis of urinary tract infection in infants and young children with unexplained fever - Abstract

Several guidelines exist on urinary tract infection (UTI) in children.

The objectives of this study were to (1) implement an evidence-based diagnostic guideline on UTI and evaluate determinants of successful implementation, and (2) determine compliance to and impact of the guideline in febrile, non-toilet trained children at the emergency department (ED). We performed a prospective cross-sectional observational study, with observations before and after implementation. Children aged 1 month to 2 years, presenting at the ED with unexplained fever (temperature above 38.5 °C), were included. We excluded children with a chronic underlying disease. Primary outcome measure was compliance to the standardized diagnostic strategy and determinants influencing compliance. Secondary outcome parameters included the following: number of used dipsticks, contaminated cultures, number of genuine UTI, frequency of prescribed antibiotic treatment, and hospitalization. The pre-intervention group {169 children (male 60.4 %, median age 1.0 (range 0.1-2.0))} was compared with the post-intervention group {150 children (male 54.7 %, median age 1.0 (range 0.1-1.9))}. In 42 patients (24.9 %), there was compliance to local guidelines before implementation, compared with 70 (46.7 %) after implementation (p-value < 0.001). Improvement in compliance after implementation was higher in patients 3-24 months and outside the office hours (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Implementation of a guideline for diagnosing UTI in febrile children at the ED has led to a significantly better compliance, especially in children aged 3-24 months. However, this study also underlines the need for a well-defined implementation strategy after launching an (inter)national guideline, taking determinants influencing implementation into account.

Written by:
Geurts DH, Vos W, Moll HA, Oostenbrink R.   Are you the author?
Department of General Pediatrics, ErasmusMC - Sophia Children's Hospital, Dr. Molewaterplein 60, P.O. Box 2060, 3000, CB, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.  

Reference: Eur J Pediatr. 2013 Nov 13. Epub ahead of print.
doi: 10.1007/s00431-013-2182-5

PubMed Abstract
PMID: 24221603 Infections Section