In epididymo-orchitis, a sonogram shows a non-homogenous and hypertrophied epididymis and testis, with increased vascularisation seen on a Doppler sonogram.
Abscesses must be investigated using sonography so that a necrotic tumour is not misdiagnosed. In prostatitis, sonography is indicated to investigate urine retention and where treatment has failed (to look for a blockage, an abscess, or pyelonephritis). Endorectal sonography is the best imaging modality for analysing the parenchyma, but otherwise has limited value. Chronic prostatitis is the main differential diagnosis from prostate cancer; the two may be distinguished using diffusion MRI. In cases of cystitis, imaging is indicated when a patient has recurrent cystitis (to investigate what the causative factors might be), or an infection with a less common bacterium (to look for calcifications, emphysema, any involvement of the upper urinary tract), and in cases of cystitis with pseudotumour.
Schull A, Monzani Q, Bour L, Barry-Delongchamps N, Beuvon F, Legmann P, Cornud F. Are you the author?
Radiology Department, Paris Centre University Hospitals, site Cochin, 27, rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France.
Reference: Diagn Interv Imaging. 2012 Apr 18. Epub ahead of print.