Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Health Sciences Centre, Room GG443-820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, MB, R3A 1R9, Canada.
Urinary tract infection remains a common problem for many populations. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the host innate immune response and its role in the familial association observed for recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infection in healthy women. Therapeutic management for uncomplicated infection has been compromised by increasing antimicrobial resistance, particularly global dissemination of the CTXM-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli ST-131 strain. Prevention strategies exploring non-antimicrobial approaches continue to show limited promise, and approaches to limit empiric antimicrobials are now being explored. For complicated urinary tract infection, increasing antimicrobial resistance limits therapeutic options for many patients. In addition to ESBL producing E. coli, NDM-1 E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and other resistant Gram negatives, such as Acinetobacter species, are being isolated more frequently. There has been renewed interest in catheter-acquired urinary tract infection, the most common health-care associated infection, with several recent evidence-based guidelines for infection prevention available. However, technologic progress in development of adherence-resistant catheter materials remains disappointing.
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Reference: Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2011 Sep 6. Epub ahead of print.