Section of Infectious Diseases, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, USA.
In many instances a report from the clinical laboratory indicating candiduria represents colonization or procurement contamination of the specimen and not invasive candidiasis. Even if infection of the urinary tract by Candida species can be confirmed, antifungal therapy is not always warranted. Further investigation may reveal predisposing factors, which if corrected or treated, result in the resolution of the infection. For those with symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), the choice of antifungal agent will depend upon the clinical status of the patient, the site of infection, and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the agent. Because of its safety, achievement of high concentrations in the urine, and availability in both an oral and intravenous formulation, fluconazole is preferred for the treatment of Candida UTIs. Flucytosine is concentrated in urine and has broad activity against Candida spp, but its use requires caution because of toxicity. Low-dose amphotericin B may be useful for Candida UTIs in selected patients. The role of echinocandins and azoles that do not achieve measurable concentrations in the urine is not clear. Small case series note some success, but failures have also occurred. Irrigation of the bladder with antifungal agents has limited utility. However, with fungus balls, irrigation of the renal pelvis through a nephrostomy tube can be useful in combination with systemic antifungal agents.
Fisher JF, Sobel JD, Kauffman CA, Newman CA. Are you the author?
Reference: Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May;52 Suppl 6:S457-66.