Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Department of Urology, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki Japan. BCG Central Laboratory, Kiyose Laboratory for Systems, Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo; Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
To conduct a preclinical evaluation of the ability of natural killer cells to cytolyze bladder cancer cells that were modified to show enhanced expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligands by R8-liposome-bacillus Calmette-Guéin (BCG)-cell wall skeleton (CWS) treatment.
The T24 cells and RT-112 cells were co-cultured with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS and BCG for 2, 4, or 6 h, and then the surface expression of NKG2D ligands was analyzed using TaqMan real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained with a conventional preparation kit, and then lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells were generated from these purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells via interleukin-2 stimulation. The anti-tumour effect of LAK cells against untreated and R8-liposome-BCG-CWS co-cultured with cells of the human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and RT-112 was analyzed using the cytotoxic WST-8 assay method at 4 h of culture at various effector/target (E : T) ratios.
Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain B (MICB) expression was increased ≈1.5-fold on T24 cells and RT-112 cells with BCG. UL-16-binding protein (ULBP) 1 expression was also increased ≈1.5-fold on T24 cells and RT-112 cells with BCG. R8-liposome-BCG-CWS increased the surface expression of MICB 2.2-fold on T24 cells but did not increase it significantly on RT-112 cells. ULBP1 expression was increased ≈2.2-fold on RT-112 cells, although no differences were observed between the expression of ULBP2 and 3 with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS. T24 cells that were co-cultured with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS showed an ≈1.3-fold increase in sensitivity to cytolysis by LAK cells at an E : T ratio of 4 and RT-112 cells showed an ≈1.4-fold increase at an E : T ratio of 2.
In the present study, the induction of surface NKG2D ligands by R8-liposome-BCG-CWS rendered cancer cells more susceptible to cytolysis by LAK cells. T24 cells and RT-112 cells, even when cultured singly in the absence of immune cells, can directly respond to R8-liposome-BCG-CWS. The results obtained in the present study may therefore indicate a novel adoptive immunotherapy against bladder cancers.
Miyazaki J, Kawai K, Kojima T, Oikawa T, Joraku A, Shimazui T, Nakaya A, Yano I, Nakamura T, Harashima H, Akaza H. Are you the author?
Reference: BJU Int. 2011 Feb 11. Epub ahead of print.