Incidence and microbiology of post-operative infections after radical cystectomy and ureteral stent removal; a retrospective cohort study.

Post-operative infections are frequent after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion surgery (UDS). Reduction of post-operative infections necessitates appropriate peri-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis targeting causative bacteria. We assessed the incidence and microbiology of infections in the 30-day post-operative period after UDS and investigated effectiveness of the currently used peri-operative antibacterial prophylaxis.

Retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing UDS in a tertiary university medical center from January 2014 until September 2016. Antibiotic prophylaxis consisted of cefazolin plus metronidazol according to the Dutch national guideline. Primary outcome was the incidence of post-operative infections within 30 days. Risk factors for post-operative infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of cultured bacteria were also assessed.

147 patients were included. 69 patients (46.9%) had 82 post-operative infections, 27 of which were patients with bacteremia (18.4%). Highest incidence of infections was on day 4-5 and on day 8-10 postoperatively. The second peak was associated with ureteral stent removal. 4.8% of 147 study patients developed bacteremia 24 h after stent removal, which counted for 25.9% of all bacteremia episodes found in this study. Enterobacteriaceae were cultured in 67.9% of blood cultures and were only highly susceptible to ciprofloxacine, piperacillin-tazobactam (90%), meropenem and gentamicin (100%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed orthotopic Hautmann neobladder to be associated with increased infections complications: odds ratio 4.1 (95% confidence interval 1.6-10.5), p = 0.03.

The incidence of infections after radical cystectomy is high and particularly ureteral stent removal was associated with both bacteremia and complicated urinary tract infections. Based on the results of this study, antibiotic prophylaxis might need to be broadened for patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Further research is required to investigate whether current guidelines need to be altered concerning administration of antibiotic prophylaxis just before stent removal.

BMC infectious diseases. 2019 Apr 03*** epublish ***

E Kolwijck, A E M Seegers, S C M Tops, A G van der Heijden, J P M Sedelaar, J Ten Oever

Radboud center for infectious diseases, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500, HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. ., Radboud center for infectious diseases, Radboud university medical center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500, HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands., Department of urology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.